Unit 3 – Networks

network
links things together
communication network
links devices so that data and information can be shared among them
PAN
Personal Area Network – connects smart devices or consumer electronics within a range of about 30 feet
LAN
Local Area Network – data communication networks that connect personal computers within a very limited geographical area
WAN
Wide Area Network – covers a large geographical area and usually consist of several smaller networks that connect different computers on a variety of platforms.
communication channel
the medium used to transport information from one network device to another
wired channels
transport data through wires and cables
wireless channels
transport data from one device to another without the use of cables or wires
RF signals
Radio waves – typically used for bluetooth devices
microwaves
another option for transporting data wirelessly, but can be aimed in a single direction
bandwidth
is the transmission capacity of a communication channel
topology
refers to the structure and layout of network components such as computers, connecting cables, and wireless signal paths Example: Point to Point, Star, Mesh, and Bus
node
any device on a network
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment – any device on a network
router
a device that controls the flow of data within a network
modem
contains circuitry that converts the data-carrying signals from a digital device to signals that can travel over other communication channels
communication protocol
a set of rules for efficiently transmitting data from one network node to another
handshaking
2 devices on a network negotiating their communication protocols
protocol stack
networks that use more one set protocols
ARPANET
created in 1969, connected computers at UCLA, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of Utah and the University of California at Santa Barbara
internet governance
a set of shared protocols, procedures, and technologies that evolve through common agreement among network providers
ICANN
the organization that supervises Internet addressing
Internet infrastructure
the way networks fit together
Tier 1 Networks
Such as At&t, CenturyLink, and Verizon who own and maintain millions of dollars data communication equipment
Tier 2 Networks
Such as Comcast and Merit, pay a fee to connect to Tier 1 networks
Tier 3 Networks
Such as Midwest Cellular, Business Networks, Home Networks, and Education Institutions – end user who pays fees for connection services
packet
is a parcel of data that is sent across a computer network
circuit switching
establishes a dedicated private link between one telephone and another for the duration of the call
packet switching
divides a message into several packets that can be routed independently to their destination.
IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4 – uses 32 bit addresses
IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6 – uses 128 bits for each addresses
IP Address
is an identifiable name for a specific computer on a network often pronounced TCPIP
static IP Address
Devices who have a permanently assigned IP address
dynamic IP addresses
are temporarily assigned IP address, for when the device is turned “on”.
domain name
easy to remember name for the IP address like nike.com
domain name system
the mechanism for tracking domain names
domain name servers
servers that are scattered around the world that maintain lists of all domain names
connection speed
the amount of data that can be transmitted in a specified time
latency
is the elapsed time for data to make a round-trip from point A to point B
ping
is a utility software designed to measure responsiveness
ping rate
indicates how quickly data can reach a server and bounce back to you.
ethernet
is a wired network technology deployed in 1976
Wi-Fi
a set of wireless networking technologies (designs consist of a mesh design or star configuration)
wireless encryption
scrambles the data transmitted between wireless devices and then unscrambles the data on devices that have the encryption key
Guest network
essentially a second network that you can configure on your LAN’s router
file sharing
allows files to be accessed from computer other than the one on which they are stored
network discovery
is a setting that affects whether your computer can see other devices
permissions
specify how shared files can be used
FTP
file transfer protocol
BitTorrent
is a file sharing protocol that distributes the role of a file serve across a collection of dispersed computers