Unit 7B Test Study

Which psychological specialty is most directly concerned with the systematic study of problem solving, decision making, concept formation, and forming judgments?
a. developmental psychology
b. social psychology
c. clinical psychology
d. cognitive psychology
e. personality psychology
d
Professor Carr’s research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences people’s assessments of financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
a. developmental psychology
b. biological psychology
c. clinical psychology
d. cognitive psychology
e. personality psychology
d
When we use the word automobile to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n):
a. prototype.
b. heuristic.
c. concept.
d. algorithm.
c
Pigeons can reliably discriminate pictures of cars from pictures of chairs. This best illustrates their capacity to develop:
a. concepts.
b. syntax.
c. heuristics.
d. mental sets.
e. algorithms.
a
A prototype is a:
a. mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.
b. step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
c. best example of a particular category.
d. ruleofthumb strategy for solving problems efficiently.
c
In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make use of:
a. algorithms.
b. phonemes.
c. prototypes.
d. mental sets.
c
Prototype is to category as ________ is to ________.
a. rose; “flower”
b. rock; “mountain”
c. man; “woman”
d. rope; “weapon”
a
With which of the following statements will people typically agree most quickly?
a. A penguin is a bird.
b. A goose is a bird.
c. A robin is a bird.
d. An ostrich is a bird.
c
Susan had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble her ________ of a fish.
a. mental set
b. heuristic
c. algorithm
d. prototype
d
People are likely to take less time to recognize a woman as a nurse than a man as a nurse because a woman more closely resembles their ________ of a nurse.
a. heuristic
b. prototype
c. algorithm
d. mental set
b
Ernest didn’t know whether the boy’s locker room was located down the hallway to his right or the one to his left. Crossing his fingers, he decided to try the left hallway. Ernest’s strategy for finding the locker room best illustrates the use of:
a. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
b. the confirmation bias.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. the framing effect.
e. trial and error.
e
An algorithm is a:
a. ruleofthumb strategy for solving problems quickly and efficiently.
b. method of hypothesis testing involving trial and error.
c. best example of a particular category.
d. methodical stepbystep procedure for solving problems.
d
A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of:
a. the availability heuristic.
b. belief perseverance.
c. an algorithm.
d. the representativeness heuristic.
e. functional fixedness.
c
Ruleofthumb strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called:
a. semantics.
b. heuristics.
c. prototypes.
d. algorithms.
e. fixations.
b
The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to:
a. save time in arriving at solutions to problems.
b. yield more accurate solutions to problems.
c. minimize the overconfidence phenomenon.
d. involve greater reliance on language skills.
a
As he attempted to spell the word receive, Elmer reminded himself “i before e except after c.” Elmer’s selfreminder best illustrates the use of:
a. a prototype.
b. trial and error.
c. insight.
d. an algorithm.
e. a heuristic.
e
After spending 2 hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira’s experience best illustrates:
a. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. insight.
d. the framing effect.
e. confirmation bias.
c
The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to:
a. search for information consistent with our preconceptions.
b. judge the likelihood of events on the basis of how easily we can remember examples of them.
c. overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
d. overestimate the degree to which other people will confirm our beliefs.
a
Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Hill, a secondgrade teacher, watches boys more closely than girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Hill’s surveillance strategy best illustrates:
a. the availability heuristic.
b. confirmation bias.
c. functional fixedness.
d. the representativeness heuristic.
e. the framing effect.
b
When Peter Wason asked people to guess the rule he had used to devise a sequence of three numbers, they typically guessed incorrectly. Their errors best illustrated the effect of:
a. functional fixedness.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. framing.
d. confirmation bias.
e. the representativeness heuristic.
d
Scientists are trained to carefully observe and record any research outcomes that are inconsistent with their hypotheses. This practice most directly serves to inhibit:
a. the framing effect.
b. artificial intelligence.
c. functional fixedness.
d. confirmation bias.
e. naturalistic observation.
d
The inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a:
a. confirmation bias.
b. fixation.
c. heuristic.
d. framing effect.
e. prototype.
b
Some people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the hazards of:
a. fixations.
b. heuristics.
c. algorithms.
d. framing.
e. overconfidence.
a
A mental set is most likely to inhibit:
a. confirmation bias.
b. overconfidence.
c. creativity.
d. belief perseverance.
c
Throughout his elementary and high school years, Charlie got away with copying his test answers from classmates. Because the college’s test proctors are very observant, Charlie spends as many hours devising new ways to cheat as it would take him to study and perform well in an honest fashion. Charlie’s strategy for passing tests illustrates the consequences of:
a. functional fixedness.
b. a mental set.
c. confirmation bias.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. the framing effect.
b
The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called:
a. functional fixedness.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. confirmation bias.
d. belief perseverance.
e. the representativeness heuristic.
a
Joan forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her downfilled jacket as a pillow. Joan’s oversight best illustrates:
a. confirmation bias.
b. belief perseverance.
c. functional fixedness.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. overconfidence.
c
The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to:
a. judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype.
b. judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered.
c. search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions.
d. cling to our initial conceptions, even though they have been discredited.
a
The danger of using the representativeness heuristic is that it may lead us to:
a. make judgments in a very inefficient, timeconsuming fashion.
b. judge event likelihood solely on the basis of event memorability.
c. disregard probability information that is relevant to our judgments.
d. judge objects only in terms of their functional utility.
c
Miss Jan De Jong is orderly, neat, fairly quiet, and shy. She enjoys reading in her spare time and belongs to a social club that includes three librarians, nine real estate agents, and eight social workers. A tendency to conclude that Jan must be one of the three librarians would illustrate the powerful influence of:
a. confirmation bias.
b. the framing effect.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
e. the availability heuristic.
c
Mistakenly concluding that the forgetful acts of an elderly person must be indicative of Alzheimer’s disease best illustrates the impact of:
a. functional fixedness.
b. belief perseverance.
c. confirmation bias.
d. the representativeness heuristic.
e. framing.
d
Isabel suffered symptoms so similar to those associated with pregnancyinduced morning sickness that she erroneously concluded that she was pregnant. Isabel’s conclusion best illustrates the influence of:
a. confirmation bias.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. functional fixedness.
c
Our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily we can remember instances of its occurrence is called the:
a. framing effect.
b. belief perseverance phenomenon.
c. confirmation bias.
d. representativeness heuristic.
e. availability heuristic.
e
Paul overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it’s easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of:
a. overconfidence.
b. functional fixedness.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. confirmation bias.
e. the availability heuristic.
e
By encouraging people to imagine their homes being destroyed by a fire, insurance salespeople are especially successful at selling large homeowners’ policies. They are most clearly exploiting the influence of:
a. belief perseverance.
b. the representativeness heuristic.
c. overconfidence.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. functional fixedness.
d
A single, memorable case of welfare fraud has a greater impact on estimates of the frequency of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the:
a. confirmation bias.
b. representativeness heuristic.
c. belief perseverance phenomenon.
d. framing effect.
e. availability heuristic.
e
A televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White’s perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by:
a. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
b. the representativeness heuristic.
c. confirmation bias.
d. fixations.
e. the availability heuristic.
e
The tendency to incorrectly estimate that more people die from accidents and homicides than from strokes and diabetes best illustrates the influence of:
a. the availability heuristic.
b. confirmation bias.
c. the framing effect.
d. the representativeness heuristic.
e. fixations.
a
The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to:
a. cling to our initial conceptions, even though they have been discredited.
b. search for information consistent with our preconceptions.
c. underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are erroneous.
d. judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered.
c
Stockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market average. This belief best illustrates:
a. functional fixedness.
b. confirmation bias.
c. the framing effect.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. overconfidence.
e
When Judy started college, she was certain that she had the willpower to never smoke marijuana. By the end of her freshman year, however, Judy had used this drug on three different occasions. Judy’s experience best illustrates:
a. the availability heuristic.
b. confirmation bias.
c. overconfidence.
d. the framing effect.
e. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
c
Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit:
a. overconfidence.
b. the framing effect.
c. functional fixedness.
d. the representativeness heuristic.
e. the availability heuristic.
a
Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as “75 percent lean” than to ground beef described as “25 percent fat.” This illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by:
a. the representativeness heuristic.
b. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
c. confirmation bias.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. framing.
e
On Monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at home. Sheryl’s behavior illustrates:
a. confirmation bias.
b. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
c. overconfidence.
d. the representativeness heuristic.
e. the framing effect.
e
People asked to forfeit an early payment discount are less upset than when they are asked to bear a late payment surcharge. This best illustrates the importance of:
a. belief perseverance.
b. confirmation bias
c. framing.
d. functional fixedness.
e. the representativeness heuristic.
c
The tendency for one’s preexisting opinions to distort logical reasoning is known as:
a. belief bias.
b. functional fixedness.
c. framing.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. linguistic relativity.
a
Wu believes that some murderers truly love their own children; he also believes that all who truly love their own children are effective parents. Wu’s negative attitude toward murderers is so strong, however, that he finds it very difficult to accept the logical conclusion that some murderers are effective parents. His difficulty best illustrates:
a. overconfidence.
b. the framing effect.
c. confirmation bias.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. belief bias.
e
People with opposing views of capital punishment reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effectiveness as a crime deterrent. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever. This best illustrates:
a. the framing effect.
b. functional fixedness.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
e. the availability heuristic.
d
Research findings suggest that the best advice to give people who want to avoid belief perseverance is:
a. “Try to justify your positions.”
b. “Consider the opposite.”
c. “Don’t draw hasty conclusions.”
d. “Consider the objective evidence.”
b
Orhan first became suspicious of his roommate’s honesty while trying to account for his own missing billfold. Although Orhan later recalled that he had left his billfold in the glove compartment of his own car, his newly formed doubt about his roommate’s honesty remained as strong as ever. Orhan’s irrational suspicion of his roommate best illustrates:
a. confirmation bias.
b. the representativeness heuristic.
c. functional fixedness.
d. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
e. the framing effect.
d
The value of generating positive first impressions in your initial interactions with a new employer is best underscored by the research on:

a. overconfidence.
b. the framing effect.
c. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
d. functional fixedness.
e. the representativeness heuristic.

c
Even when Lepper, Ross, and Lau explained to high school students that prior viewing of a confusing film caused their poor performance on a problem-solving test, the students continued to see themselves as incompetent. This illustrates:
a. the belief perseverance phenomenon.
b. the framing effect.
c. functional fixedness.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. the representativeness heuristic.
a
Psychologists are interested in artificial intelligence because:
a. computers have minds but not emotions that cloud judgment.
b. computer microchips operate almost exactly like the neurons of the brain.
c. computers can simulate some human problemsolving strategies.
d. of all the above reasons.
c
Which of the following illustrates an application of artificial intelligence?
a. a computer that enables apes to communicate with humans
b. a computercontrolled system that simulates the sound of human voices
c. a computer programmed to play chess
d. All the above are applications of artificial intelligence.
c
In order to more closely mimic human thought processes than they now do, computers of the future must have the capacity for:
a. the parallel processing of information.
b. following precise rules of logic.
c. using heuristics to solve problems.
d. retrieving detailed facts from memory.
e. using algorithms to solve problems.
a
Unlike conventional computer systems, neural networks have a capacity for:
a. following precise rules of logic.
b. retrieving detailed facts from memory.
c. using algorithms to solve problems.
d. processing numerous informational units simultaneously.
e. using heuristics to solve problems.
d
The smallest distinctive sound unit of language is a:
a. prototype.
b. phenotype.
c. morpheme.
d. phoneme.
d
The various vowel sounds that can be placed between a “t” and an “n” produce words such as tan, ten, tin, and ton. These various vowel sounds represent different:
a. morphemes.
b. prototypes.
c. phonemes.
d. semantics.
e. phenotypes.
c
English words are constructed from about ________ different phonemes.
a. five
b. six
c. twentysix
d. forty
d
Morphemes are:
a. the smallest speech units that carry meaning.
b. the best examples of particular categories of objects.
c. the smallest distinctive sound units of a language.
d. rules for combining words into grammatically correct sentences.
a
The word “cats” contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s).
a. 2; 1
b. 4; 1
c. 2; 4
d. 4; 2
d
62. Semantics refers to the:
a. logical and methodical procedures for solving problems.
b. orderly arrangement of words into grammatically correct sentences.
c. ruleofthumb strategies that facilitate quick decision making.
d. derivation of meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
d
The rock musician was HIT with a rotten egg while performing his latest HIT song. The fact that you can recognize two different meanings for the word “hit” in the preceding sentence demonstrates the importance of:
a. syntax.
b. semantics.
c. morphemes.
d. prototypes.
e. linguistic relativity.
b
In order to combine words into grammatically sensible sentences, one needs to adhere to proper rules of:
a. semantics.
b. syntax.
c. nomenclature.
d. phonics.
b
Lavonne was careful to avoid the use of dangling participles and runon sentences in her essay because she did not want to lose points for faulty:
a. semantics.
b. phonemes.
c. nomenclature.
d. morphemes.
e. syntax.
e
Consonant phonemes generally convey ________ information than do vowel phonemes, and frequently used words are generally ________ than infrequently used words.
a. more; longer
b. less; shorter
c. more; shorter
d. less; longer
c
The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage.
a. babbling
b. telegraphic speech
c. oneword
d. grammatical
e. semantic
a
Infants are first able to discriminate speech sounds during the ________ stage.
a. one-word
b. telegraphic
c. babbling
d. syntactic
e. echoic
c
At some point during the babbling stage, infants begin to:
a. imitate adult grammar.
b. make speech sounds only if their hearing is unimpaired.
c. speak in simple words that may be barely recognizable.
d. lose their ability to discriminate sounds that they never hear.
d
Children first begin to use sounds to communicate meaning during the ________ stage.
a. one-word
b. two-word
c. echoic
d. telegraphic
e. babbling
a
At the age of 15 months, Carla repeatedly cries “hoy” when she wants her mother to hold her. Carla is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.
a. syntactic
b. babbling
c. telegraphic speech
d. echoic
e. oneword
e
Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the ________ stage of language development.
a. oneword
b. babbling
c. two-word
d. echoic
e. phonetic
c
Which of the following would be most characteristic of a 2yearold’s telegraphic speech?
a. “a doggy”
b. “eat apple”
c. “to store”
d. “ball pretty”
b
With respect to the debate over the process of language development, nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.
a. Skinner; Whorf
b. Whorf; Skinner
c. Skinner; Chomsky
d. Chomsky; Skinner
d
Noam Chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by:
a. an unborn readiness to learn grammatical rules.
b. their ability to imitate the words and grammar modeled by parents.
c. the learned association of word sounds with various objects, events, actions, and qualities.
d. the positive reinforcement that adults give children for speaking correctly.
Explaining language development, p. 377
a
It is difficult to explain language acquisition solely in terms of imitation and reinforcement because children:
a. acquire language even in the absence of social interaction.
b. resent being corrected for grammatical mistakes.
c. overgeneralize grammatical rules, producing speech errors they have never heard before.
d. employ telegraphic speech patterns before speaking in complex sentences.
c
When 3yearold Lea complained, “Boris hitted me with a ball,” she was illustrating the tendency of young children to:
a. use telegraphic speech patterns.
b. imitate the incorrect speech patterns of others.
c. receive inadequate reinforcement for correct language usage.
d. use certain grammatical rules in sentence construction.
d
Infants can learn the difference between syllable sequences that follow an ABA pattern (such as: ga-ti-ga) and those that follow an ABB pattern (such as: wo-fe-fe). This best illustrates the infant’s capacity to learn:
a. telegraphic speech.
b. statistical probabilities in speech.
c. a universal grammar underlying speech.
d. any speech system by means of operant conditioning.
b
The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that:
a. infants babble phonemes that do not occur in their parents’ native language.
b. toddlers maintain a capacity to discriminate phonemes that they have never heard.
c. people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.
d. preschoolers often overgeneralize certain rules of grammatical structure.
c
Compared to deaf adults exposed to sign language from birth, those who first learn sign language as teens are less likely to:
a. correctly imitate the signs they are shown.
b. use signs to indicate concrete objects.
c. mentally associate signs with written words.
d. comprehend grammatical subtleties of sign language.
d
Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis emphasizes that:
a. infancy is a critical period for language development.
b. the grammatical rules of a language are constantly changing.
c. our social status influences our linguistic proficiencies.
d. language determines the way we think.
d
Many bilinguals experience a different sense of self, depending on which language they are using. This most clearly illustrates the implications of:
a. Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis.
b. Skinner’s language acquisition theory.
c. Bandura’s social-cognitive theory.
d. Chomsky’s language acquisition theory.
a
It has been suggested that Eskimos’ rich vocabulary for describing snow enables them to
perceive differences in snow conditions that would otherwise go unnoticed. This suggestion most clearly illustrates:
a. functional fixedness.
b. the representativeness heuristic.
c. the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
d. the framing effect.
e. belief perseverance.
c
Even though 18monthold Jerry has not yet learned the words for different colors, he recognizes color differences just as accurately as his 4yearold brother, who can name the different colors. This fact would most directly challenge:
a. Chomsky’s language acquisition theory.
b. Bandura’s social-cognitive theory.
c. Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis.
d. Skinner’s language acquisition theory.
c
Research with children indicates that the use of the generic pronoun “he” tends to trigger images of:
a. a male.
b. a female about a third of the time the pronoun is used.
c. a female about half the time the pronoun is used.
d. persons who are neither obviously male nor obviously female.
a
The fact that we can think without language is best illustrated in research on:
a. mental imagery.
b. functional fixedness.
c. the framing effect.
d. algorithms.
e. the representativeness heuristic.
a
Our capacity for thinking without language is best illustrated by:
a. belief perseverance.
b. parallel processing.
c. the framing effect.
d. artificial intelligence.
e. functional fixedness.
b
The problem-solving abilities of forest-dwelling chimpanzees are best illustrated by their naturally developed use of:
a. sign language.
b. hand tools.
c. heuristics.
d. artificial intelligence.
b
The dance of the honeybee illustrates that animals are capable of:
a. communicating useful information.
b. learning a sign language.
c. following grammatical rules.
d. all the above.
a
Beatrice and Allen Gardner taught the chimpanzee Washoe to communicate by means of:
a. pictures.
b. Morse code.
c. sign language.
d. a simplified typewriter.
c
Research on the language capabilities of apes clearly demonstrates that they have the capacity to:
a. vocalize the most common vowel sounds.
b. acquire language vocabulary as rapidly as most children.
c. communicate meaning through the use of symbols.
d. do all the above.
c
Those who are skeptical with regard to claims that apes share our capacity for language are especially likely to highlight chimps’ limited use of appropriate:
a. morphemes.
b. heuristics.
c. syntax.
d. phonemes.
e. neural networks.
c
Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between thinking and language?
a. “Real” thinking requires the use of language.
b. People sometimes think in images rather than in words.
c. A thought that cannot be expressed in a particular language cannot occur to speakers of that language.
d. All of the above are true.
b
The text defines cognition as:
a. silent speech.
b. all mental activity.
c. mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communicating information.
d. logical reasoning.
e. problem solving.
c
A mental grouping of similar things, events, or people is called a(n):
a. prototype.
b. concept.
c. algorithm.
d. heuristic.
e. mental set.
b
When forming a concept, people often develop a best example, or ________, of a category.
a. denoter
b. heuristic
c. prototype
d. algorithm
c
Complete the following analogy: Rose is to flower as:
a. concept is to prototype.
b. prototype is to concept.
c. concept is to hierarchy.
d. hierarchy is to concept.
b
Dr. Mendoza is studying the mental strategies people use when solving problems. Dr. Mendoza is clearly a(n):
a. cognitive psychologist.
b. experimental psychologist.
c. organizational psychologist.
d. developmental psychologist.
a
The basic units of cognition are:
a. phonemes.
b. concepts.
c. prototypes.
d. morphemes.
b
If you want to be absolutely certain that you will find the solution to a problem you know is solvable, you should use:
a. a heuristic.
b. an algorithm.
c. insight.
d. trial and error.
b
A dessert recipe that gives you the ingredients, their amounts, and the steps to follow is an example of a(n):
a. prototype.
b. algorithm.
c. heuristic.
d. mental set.
b
Which of the following is an example of the use of heuristics?
a. trying every possible letter ordering when unscrambling a word

b. considering each possible move when playing chess
c. using the formula “area = length ( width” to find the area of a rectangle
d. playing chess using a defensive strategy that has often been successful for you

d
Experts in a field prefer heuristics to algorithms because heuristics:
a. guarantee solutions to problems.
b. prevent mental sets.
c. often save time.
d. prevent fixation.
e. do all of the above.
c
Boris the chess master selects his next move by considering moves that would threaten his opponent’s queen. His opponent, a chess-playing computer, selects its next move by considering all possible moves. Boris is using a(n) ________ and the computer is using a(n) ________.
a. algorithm; heuristic
b. prototype; mental set
c. mental set; prototype
d. heuristic; algorithm
d
During a televised political debate, the Republican and Democratic candidates each argued that the results of a recent public opinion poll supported their party’s platform regarding sexual harassment. Because both candidates saw the information as supporting their belief, it is clear that both were victims of:
a. functional fixedness.
b. mental set.
c. belief bias.
d. confirmation bias.
d
Confirmation bias refers to the tendency to:
a. allow preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning.
b. cling to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
c. search randomly through alternative solutions when problem solving.
d. look for information that is consistent with one’s beliefs.
d
Mental set and functional fixedness are two types of:
a. algorithms.
b. heuristics.
c. fixation.
d. insight.
c
Failing to see that an article of clothing can be inflated as a life preserver is an example of:
a. belief bias.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. functional fixedness.
d
Failing to solve a problem that requires using an object in an unusual way illustrates the phenomenon of:
a. mental set.
b. functional fixedness.
c. framing.
d. belief perseverance.
e. overconfidence.
b
Marilyn was asked to solve a series of five math problems. The first four problems could only be solved by a particular sequence of operations. The fifth problem could also be solved following this sequence; however, a much simpler solution was possible. Marilyn did not realize this simpler solution and solved the problem in the way she had solved the first four. Her problem-solving strategy was hampered by:
a. functional fixedness.
b. the overconfidence phenomenon.
c. mental set.
d. her lack of a prototype for the solution.
c
Rudy is 6 feet 6 inches tall, weighs 210 pounds, and is very muscular. If you think that Rudy is more likely to be a basketball player than a computer programmer, you are a victim of:
a. belief bias.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. mental set.
d. functional fixedness.
e. the representativeness heuristic.
e
You hear that one of the Smith children is an outstanding Little League player and immediately conclude it’s their one son rather than any of their four daughters. You reached your quite possibly erroneous conclusion as the result of:
a. the confirmation bias.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. belief perseverance.
c
Representativeness and availability are examples of:
a. mental sets.
b. belief bias.
c. algorithms.
d. fixation.
e. heuristics.
e
Airline reservations typically decline after a highly publicized airplane crash because people overestimate the incidence of such disasters. In such instances, people’s decisions are being influenced by:
a. belief bias.
b. the availability heuristic.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. functional fixedness.
b
Your stand on an issue such as the use of nuclear power for electricity involves personal judgment. In such a case, one memorable occurrence can weigh more heavily than a bookful of data, thus illustrating:
a. belief perseverance.
b. confirmation bias.
c. the representativeness heuristic.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. belief bias.
d
Assume that Congress is considering revising its approach to welfare and to this end is hearing a range of testimony. A member of Congress who uses the availability heuristic would be most likely to:
a. want to experiment with numerous possible approaches to see which of these seems to work best.
b. want to cling to approaches to welfare that seem to have had some success in the past.
c. refuse to be budged from his or her beliefs despite persuasive testimony to the contrary.
d. base his or her ideas on the most vivid, memorable testimony given, even though many of the statistics presented run counter to this testimony.
d
Most people tend to:
a. accurately estimate the accuracy of their knowledge and judgments.
b. underestimate the accuracy of their knowledge and judgments.
c. overestimate the accuracy of their knowledge and judgments.
d. lack confidence in their decision-making strategies.
c
In relation to ground beef, consumers respond more positively to an ad describing it as “75 percent lean” than to one referring to its “25 percent fat” content. This is an example of:
a. the framing effect.
b. confirmation bias.
c. mental set.
d. overconfidence.
a
A common problem in everyday reasoning is our tendency to:
a. accept as logical those conclusions that agree with our own opinions.

b. accept as logical those conclusions that disagree with our own opinions.
c. underestimate the accuracy of our knowledge.
d. accept as logical conclusions that involve unfamiliar concepts.

a
Which of the following illustrates belief perseverance?
a. Your belief remains intact even in the face of evidence to the contrary.
b. You refuse to listen to arguments counter to your beliefs.
c. You tend to become flustered and angered when your beliefs are refuted.
d. You tend to search for information that supports your beliefs.
e. Your beliefs tend to distort logical reasoning.
a
Which of the following describes artificial intelligence?
a. the science of low-temperature phenomena
b. the study of animal behavior in its natural habitat
c. the study of control processes in electronic and biological systems
d. the science that explores human thought by attempting to model it on the computer
e. the best example of a category
d
Because of their lightning speed, computers can retrieve and manipulate stored data faster than people can, but the human brain beats the computer hands down when it comes to:
a. using heuristics.
b. following algorithms.
c. serial processing.
d. simultaneous processing.
d
Neural network computers:
a. can be programmed to mimic excitatory and inhibitory neural messages.
b. have a greater capacity than conventional computers to learn from experience.
c. are not limited to serial processing.
d. can do all of the above.
e. can do none of the above.
d
Phonemes are the basic units of ________ in language.
a. sound
b. meaning
c. grammar
d. semantics
e. syntax
a
The English language has approximately ________ phonemes.
a. 25
b. 30
c. 40
d. 45
e. 50
c
The word “predates” contains ________ phonemes and ________ morphemes.
a. 7; 3
b. 3; 7
c. 7; 2
d. 3; 2
a
Complete the following: -ed is to sh as ________ is to ________.
a. phoneme; morpheme
b. morpheme; phoneme
c. grammar; syntax
d. syntax; grammar
b
A listener hearing a recording of Japanese, Spanish, and North American children babbling would:
a. not be able to tell them apart.
b. be able to tell them apart if they were older than 6 months.
c. be able to tell them apart if they were older than 8 to 10 months.
d. be able to tell them apart at any age.
a
The rules most directly involved in permitting a person to derive meaning from words and sentences are rules of:
a. syntax.
b. grammar.
c. phonemic structure.
d. semantics.
d
The sentence “Blue jeans wear false smiles” has correct ________ but incorrect ________.
a. morphemes; phonemes
b. phonemes; morphemes
c. semantics; syntax
d. syntax; semantics
d
Syntax refers to the:
a. sounds in a word.
b. rules for grouping words into sentences.
c. rules by which meaning is derived from sentences.
d. overall rules of a language.
b
Which of the following is not true of babbling?
a. It is imitation of adult speech.
b. It is the same in all cultures.
c. It typically occurs from about age 4 months to 1 year.

d. Babbling increasingly comes to resemble a particular language.
e. Deaf babies babble with gestures.

a
One reason an English-speaking adult may have difficulty pronouncing Russian words is that:
a. the vocal tracts of English- and Russian-speaking people develop differently in response to the demands of the two languages.
b. although English and Russian have very similar morphemes, their phonemic inventories are very different.
c. although English and Russian have very similar phonemes, their morphemic inventories are very different.
d. after the babbling stage, a child who hears only English stops uttering other phonemes.
d
The child who says “Milk gone” is engaging in ________. This type of utterance demonstrates that children are actively experimenting with the rules of ________.
a. babbling; syntax
b. telegraphic speech; syntax
c. babbling; semantics
d. telegraphic speech; semantics
b
Telegraphic speech is typical of the ________ stage.
a. babbling
b. one-word
c. two-word
d. three-word
c
Children first demonstrate a rudimentary understanding of syntax during the ________ stage.
a. babbling
b. one-word
c. two-word
d. three-word
c
Skinner and other behaviorists have argued that language development is the result of:
a. imitation.
b. reinforcement.
c. association.
d. all of the above.
d
Which of the following best describes Chomsky’s view of language development?
a. Language is an entirely learned ability.
b. Language is an innate ability.
c. Humans have a biological predisposition to acquire language.
d. There are no cultural influences on the development of language.
c
Which of the following is not cited by Chomsky as evidence that language acquisition cannot be explained by learning alone?
a. Children master the complicated rules of grammar with ease.
b. Children create sentences they have never heard.
c. Children make the kinds of mistakes that suggest they are attempting to apply rules of grammar.
d. Children raised in isolation from language spontaneously begin speaking words.
d
In preparing her class presentation, “Updating Chomsky’s Understanding of Language Development,” Britney’s outline includes all of the following evidence except that:
a. computer neural networks programmed to learn to form the past tense of irregular verbs can learn to do so, even without “inborn” linguistic rules.
b. infants rapidly learn to detect subtle differences between simple sequences of syllables.
c. infants can recognize color differences even before they can name different colors.
d. children isolated from language during the first seven years of life never fully develop language.
c
Which of the following utterances is an example of overgeneralization of a grammatical rule?
a. “We goed to the store.”
b. “Ball pretty.”
c. “The sky is crying.”
d. “We eat ‘paghetti.”
a
The study in which people who immigrated to the United States at various ages were compared in terms of their ability to understand English grammar found that:
a. age of arrival had no effect on mastery of grammar.
b. those who immigrated as children understood grammar as well as native speakers.
c. those who immigrated as adults understood grammar as well as native speakers.
d. whether or not English was spoken in the home was the most important factor in mastering the rules of grammar.
b
Deaf children who are not exposed to sign language until they are teenagers:
a. are unable to master the basic words of sign language.
b. learn the basic words but not how to order them.
c. are unable to master either the basic words or syntax of sign language.
d. never become as fluent as those who learned to sign at a younger age.
d
According to the text, language acquisition is best described as:
a. the result of conditioning and reinforcement.
b. a biological process of maturation.
c. an interaction between biology and experience.
d. a mystery of which researchers have no real understanding
c
Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis states that:
a. language is primarily a learned ability.
b. language is partially an innate ability.
c. the size of a person’s vocabulary reflects his or her intelligence.
d. our language shapes our thinking.
d
The linguistic relativity hypothesis is challenged by the finding that:
a. chimps can learn to communicate spontaneously by using sign language.
b. people with no word for a certain color can still perceive that color accurately.
c. the Eskimo language contains a number of words for snow, whereas English has only one.
d. infants’ babbling contains many phonemes that do not occur in their own language and that they therefore cannot have heard.
b
Several studies have indicated that the generic pronoun “he”:
a. tends for children and adults alike to trigger images of both males and females.
b. tends for adults to trigger images of both males and females, but for children to trigger images of males.
c. tends for both children and adults to trigger images of males but not females.
d. for both children and adults triggers images of females about one-fourth of the time it is used.
c
Regarding the relationship between thinking and language, which of the following most accurately reflects the position taken in the text?
a. Language determines everything about our thinking.
b. Language determines the way we think.
c. Thinking without language is not possible.
d. Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought.
d
Researchers who are convinced that animals can think point to evidence that:
a. monkeys demonstrate the ability to “count” by learning to touch pictures of objects in ascending numerical order.
b. chimpanzees regularly use branches, stones, and other objects as tools in their natural habitats.
c. chimps invent grooming and courtship customs and pass them on to their peers.
d. all of the above occur.
d
Researchers who believe that some primates possess a rudimentary theory of mind point to evidence that:
a. chimpanzees have been observed using mirrors to inspect themselves.
b. vervet monkeys have different alarm calls for different predators.
c. orangutans in the wild frequently use stones as tools.
d. honeybees communicate the direction and distance of a food source by performing an
intricate dance.
e. all of the above occur.
a
The chimpanzee Sultan used a short stick to pull a longer stick that was out of reach into his cage. He then used the longer stick to reach a piece of fruit. Researchers hypothesized that Sultan’s discovery of the solution to his problem was the result of:
a. trial and error.
b. heuristics.
c. functional fixedness.
d. mental set.
e. insight.
e
Biologist Karl von Frisch won the Nobel prize for his discovery that honeybees communicate with each other by:
a. varying the acoustic pitch of their buzzing noises.
b. secreting chemical odors called pheromones.
c. performing an intricate dance.
d. leading other worker bees on lengthy flights to find nectar.
c
Researchers taught the chimpanzee Washoe and the gorilla Koko to communicate by using:
a. various sounds.
b. plastic symbols of various shapes and colors.
c. sign language.
d. all of the above.
c
Which of the following has been argued by critics of ape language research?
a. Ape language is merely imitation of the trainer’s behavior.
b. There is little evidence that apes can equal even a 3-year-old’s ability to order words with proper syntax.
c. By seeing what they wish to see, trainers attribute greater linguistic ability to apes than actually exists.
d. All of the above have been argued.
d
Many psychologists are skeptical of claims that chimpanzees can acquire language because the chimps have not shown the ability to:
a. use symbols meaningfully.
b. acquire speech.
c. acquire even a limited vocabulary.
d. use syntax in communicating.
d