Unit II: Chapters 6-10

Yellow journalism featured _____ stories.
sensationalized
Which of the following functions do news media perform?
act as a watchdog and scrutinizes official behavior, provide political information, provide a channel through which political leaders communicate to the public
A few decades ago, the media system centered on broadcast news networks, but Americans now have a high-_____ media system, where they can pick from a wide variety of outlets.
choice
Which of the following media has had the biggest role in making politics more participative?
the Internet
T/F: Rupert Murdoch originally intended Fox News to be an objective, nonpartisan news channel.
False
Which of the following are reasons why the amount of news the typical American watches has declined since the 1970s?
cable television and other high-choice media became available, children stopped watching the dinner-time news with their parents.
The media’s function called ____, serves to alert the public to important events in a timely fashion.
signaling
Much like political parties and interest groups, the news media, or press,
are a key intermediary between Americans and their leaders
Although the American press originally had a political orientation, it eventually shifted to a journalistic orientation, which emphasizes
newsworthy information and events.
The elimination of the _____ meant that radio stations no longer had to air a conservative talk show if they aired a liberal one.
Fairness Doctrine
Which of the following media are subject to content regulation by the government?
broadcast television, broadcast radio
The media carries out a ___-____ function when it disseminates information from political leaders to the public.
common – carrier
The media’s ability to function as signalers and influence what people are thinking about and discussing is called agenda _____.
setting.
T/F: Thanks to the internet, the typical American watches more news on today than in the 1970s?
false
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson felt that newspapers should
promote partisan viewpoints on political matters.
Which of the following rules requires a broadcast station to provide a “reasonable opportunity for the discussion of conflicting views of public importance”?
the Fairness Doctrine
The news media operate as gatekeepers, which means that they
determine which events will be covered and which will not.
The rise of partisan news outlets in the past few decades has contributed to an increase in
party polarization
When Ted Turner started CNN in 1980, he instructed his correspondents to
strive for partisan neutrality
The media serves a ____ function when it alerts the public to unethical or illegal activities by the government.
watchdog
Which of the following resulted from the invention of the power-driven printing press in the late 1800s?
newspapers were less dependent on government financial support, newspaper advertising generated more revenue, newspaper readership increased because they could be sold at a lower price
Sensational and largely inaccurate newspaper reports on the cruelty of Spanish rule in Cuba may have helped spark
the Spanish-American War
The invention of the telegraph resulted in newspapers
replacing opinion commentary with more news reports
The research conducted by David D’alessia and Mike Allen showed that television news has
a slight but insignificant bias in the Democratic direction.
American newspapers were originally
partisan
When the media use framing, they are
presenting a selective version of reality
Adults under 30 years of age are ____, those over 50 to follow the news.
less likely than
The newspapers of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, each of which openly backed a specific political party, were examples of the _____ press.
partisan
The news media’s partisan function means that it
acts as an advocate for a particular viewpoint
Which of the following inventions revolutionized newspaper journalism in the early 1800s?
the telegraph
In the early decades of the twentieth century, the press responded to yellow journalism by
committing to objective journalism.
Most successful radio and television talk show hosts promote a _____ viewpoint.
conservative
Unlike CNN, MSNBC and Fox News chose to
adopt a partisan approach to the news.
Why is the news shaped by news organizations’ need to attract and keep viewers?
news organizations choose coverage that will draw an audience for advertisers.
Which of the following broadcast news sources has seen its audience grow since the early 1990s?
NPR
One of the reasons the reporting of national news is relatively uniform among news sources is that
the government dictates much of what is reported
The traditional media have “softened” their news by
infusing it with more stories about celebrities, crime, and the like.
Scholarly research has shown that, overall, the traditional media
Agenda-setting is an action that falls under which of the major roles played by the press?
Of all the time people spend on the Internet, they spend the LEAST amount of time on which of the following?
Yellow journalism contributed to public support for the
Spanish-American War
Over the last century, which newspaper has had a lasting reputation as the country’s best newspaper?
The federal government’s licensing of broadcasting is based primarily on
the scarcity of broadcasting frequencies
Most successful Internet blogs
have a liberal bias
Historically, the American press has shifted from
a political to a journalistic orientation
Which of the region of the country overall has the LOWEST connectivity to the Internet?
Which of the following does NPR serve as an example of?
the one true success story of public broadcasting
Of the following television networks, which is typically considered the MOST partisan?
Fox News
Partisan talk radio got its start
The news provides a refracted version of reality because it
emphasizes dramatic and compelling news stories
One special contribution of Internet-based news is that it
provides the ordinary citizen with an opportunity to be part of the news system
What development brought about a dramatic reduction in television’s capacity to generate an interest in news?
an increase in newspaper circulation
The Watergate scandal illustrates the
power of the media to serve as watchdog to safeguard against abuses of power
During the era of objective journalism, the commitment of newspapers to two-sided news reporting
did not extend to their editorializing
T/F: In Belgium, those who do not vote may be denied employment in the public sector
true
All of the following tend to decrease voter turnout, except
major differences between the major parties
Occupy Wall Street’s main issue was focused on
the political power and benefits received by the wealthiest Americans
T/F: Political polarization occurs when party members will not crossover vote
true
In Texas, the primary is held
the first Tuesday in March
Using the caucus and convention method to select candidates gave who power?
the parties
An individual can donate as much money as they choose to a candidate, T/F?
false
The general election is also commonly defined as a party election, T/F?
false
The general election is held
first Tuesday following the first Monday in November
Members of the Electoral College are selected by
State political parties
An individual can donate how much per election during election cycle to candidates?
$2,700
In the 2012 presidential election, the majority of campaign spending was on
media
T/F: Retired lawmakers cannot become lobbyists because they are forbidden by law to take a lobbying job
false
A person as a ____ rider derives a benefit without contributing to its achievement
free
Which of the following would be considered outside lobbying activities used by interest groups?
organizing a protest on the steps of Congress, creating public service announcements to be aired on television, having group members send letters to their legislators
An interest group may form a political action committee, whose main goal is to
raise and spend money to influence the outcome of elections
An issue network is comprised of
various actors that all have interest and expertise in a particular policy issue even though they may disagree on what the outcome should be
The situation in which individuals are tempted not to contribute to a cause because they will get the benefits even if they do not participate is called the
free-rider problem
Members of the ________ generate more mail to Congress than any other group.
AARP
Effective inside lobbying is based upon
providing useful and persuasive information to key officials
Most lobbyists receive support from elected officials in direct exchange for
information
A basic reason for the existence of so many interest groups in the United States is
– America’s federal system of government.
– the extent of diverse interests in American society.
– the American tradition of free association.
– the separation of powers in American government.
An interest group that focuses on policy benefits for senior citizens would be an example of
a single issue group
The most fully organized interests are those that have which of the following as their primary purpose?
economic activity
In recent decades, lobbyists in Washington, D.C. have increasingly
targeted the executive branch in efforts to influence policy decisions
“Agency capture” occurs when
regulatory agencies side with the industries they are supposed to regulate rather than with the public.
The most numerous economic groups are
business groups
PAC contributions account for about ___ percent of total contributions to congressional campaigns.