Pakistan was struck with two massive natural disasters. In August 2010 Pakistan devastating ;mega’ floods affected 18 million people, including 9 million children. Heavy monsoonal rains once more struck the southern provinces of Kinds and Balloonists in September 2011, affecting approximately 5 million people. Child friendly or protective spaces have been used by Child protection agencies and sub cluster members in both emergency responses as a quick response to children’s rights to protection, psychosocial wellbeing and non-formal learning.
The massive scale of the disasters, combined with the nature of the displacement into small, scattered DIP settlements rather than large-scale camps, created significant challenges to reaching the most vulnerable children and families. Social and cultural restrictions on the movement and public participation of adolescent girls and women were an additional challenge. Despite the challenges, sub cluster members were able to mobiles large scale coverage and target particularly vulnerable children through the introduction of a number of innovative approaches. 1.
Mobile spaces” – In addition to the more traditional fixed CIFS, the use of vans and buses, often painted with communication messages, carrying facilitators and recreation and learning Items was commonly used to make regular, periodic vaults to certain locations 2. Integration with women friendly spaces 3. Integration with other humanitarian services 4. Inclusive CIFS for children with disability 5. Adolescents’ participation In 2010, a total of more than 1 million children accessed xx CIFS and xx women accessed xx Women Friendly Spaces (which In most cases operated in separate actions).
In 2011, a total of 236 static and 411 mobile spaces were established. In total 244,243 children accessed the spaces (48% of which were girls) and 79,598 women accessed the protective spaces (mostly to-located with children’s spaces). A number of global working group and agency specific manuals and guidelines on child friendly spaces have been developed and are available to the Child Protection sub cluster, including through www. Possesses. Org (Child Protection Sub Cluster link). The Sub Cluster also developed a set of Minimum Standards for CIFS in September 2010. The purpose of these minimum standards is to encourage consistency and ensure quality in relation to the establishment and running of all protective spaces for children and women throughout Pakistan, which in Pakistan may take the name of Child Friendly Spaces, Women Friendly Spaces, protective spaces, “PLaCES” and names in local languages.
These standards should be read in conjunction with Guidelines for Child Friendly Spaces in Emergencies for Field Testing, and A Practical Guide to developing Child Friendly Spaces (EUNICE) for broader principles and practical guidance. 2. LOCATION CIFS can be set up in camps (formal/informal), open spaces (embankments, roads etc. ), school buildings, host communities or communities affected by the disaster. A CIFS can be set up together with, or attached to, other services such as health centers, therapeutic feeding centers, temporary learning centers, women’s community centers, etc. Co-locating services may provide better coverage of the target group, streamlined services, more access to vulnerable groups, and more effective pooling of limited funds. Minimum Standards: Consultation and agreement with community regarding the location and design of he CIFS through a participative mapping exercise with a group of boys and girls of different ages, as well as community leaders and care-givers. ; Safety and security of area (egg. Amoeba of hazards, access to safe water, non-military environment, safe access road, etc) ; Access to outdoor area for recreational activities Area for private discussions between children and psychologists or CIFS staff ; Privacy for women (egg using Purdue walls where appropriate, not locating the space close to men’s meeting areas) ; Locate CIFS sites in or near places where there are significant numbers of vulnerable children ; Do NOT establish CIFS in an areas where there are nearby CIFS ; Accessible children with wheelchairs or crutches (egg through portable wooden ramp) ; Water and sanitation facilities either in the enclosure or close by, with facilities for children with disabilities (egg. Rope or handling in latrine, brightly colored for vision impaired) ; Spaces should not be overcrowded. A suggested ratio of children to a single tent or room would be 40 – 60 at one time Protective services should be implemented with sensitivity to child development, and he distinct needs of girls and boys and of different age groups. They should be designed in consultation with children, women and caregivers.
Psychosocial Support: Protective spaces should support families and caregivers (egg via positive parenting, helping family members deal with their own distress) and community networks (egg women and youth groups) to promote psychosocial well being -COP facilitators must have proven skills in communicating with children and must be able to identify signs in individual children that require more specialized attention and/or referral (egg abuse, severe distress). – In most cases children will not require one-on- one counseling. Where such cases are identified, a local counselor or social worker should be available (in many areas of Pakistan there are no qualified psychologists) – A clear referral mechanism must be in place for every protective space showing local service providers and contacts, and all staff should be familiar with the referral mechanism. ASS should also be available for care givers and for COP staff (who may also be affected by the emergency)- Male and female staff are available in the protective spaces- Availability off private space for children or women to meet informally and confidentially with COP staff or counselor – Information related to meetings with counselors or referrals is strictly confidential and should not be displayed publicly (including numbers of cases, types of issues, etc) – Include ways to reach out to and encourage adolescent girls with babies and young children to benefit from the protective spaces: separate timings, inclusion in women’s centers, discussion groups, baby friendly spaces – Strengthening existing youth clubs and supporting adolescents to play an active role in protective spaces and their communities (egg as members of COP committees) Basic Literacy and Innumeracy Teaching and educational display materials should be in appropriate(IEEE commonly understood) and accessible (e large print and pictorial representations)language/s that are most appropriate for the children and women of that area – This activity should not replace regular schooling and children should be encouraged to attend regular schools once the schools are open – A protective space or CIFS is not a school and staff should be clear with communities from the beginning about the differences.
The name of the space may also be important to project its correct meaning to communities (communities should also be consulted on names) – Children with complete visual loss will require some amount of dedicated support from a COP facilitator to ensure their participation in literacy and innumeracy activities – Seek advice and support from the Age and Disability Task Force on how to include children with disabilities Basic awareness on key information related itself-protection, health, hygiene promotion, waste management, disaster preparedness and disaster risk reduction (e prevention and mitigation of disaster related impacts on children), should be provided.
Basic mine risk education on avoiding landmines, Uses and ‘DEED should be given (even in flood-affected areas far from military operations, mine incidents affecting children occurred in 2011 when flood waters dislodged and carried Uses). For more detailed MR. in conflict affected areas, a specialized agency may be needed. Recreational Activities Played recreational activities for children of different age groups should be arranged in separate spaces, or at different times- Particular attention should be given to encouraging participation of girls and consulting with them on types of creation they enjoy, including local traditional games. Cultural sensitivities and community acceptance should be taken into account, while gender stereotypes should be avoided (egg girls have shown themselves to be very willing to play cricket, if the appropriate space is provided). Include activities accessible to children with disabilities – Engage children, adolescents and women in the spaces in making their own toys, puppets and games out of commonly available materials. This will also provide examples for communities to recreate when they move back to their own homes. Services for Girls and Women 4. OTHER SUPPORTING MECHANISM OF CIFS Identification, registration, tracing and reunification of unaccompanied and separated children: CIFS staff have received basic training in identification of unaccompanied and separated children and they know who to contact for assistance in documentation and reunification (egg Social Welfare Department, EUNICE, ISRC, etc) CIFS staff are aware of alternative care arrangements for unaccompanied children know who to contact.
Identification and registration of vulnerable children and referral: – CIFS staff have received basic training in identification of vulnerable children such as children from ere poor households, children with disabilities, children victims of sexual or physical abuse, working children etc. Should be identified and registered by CIFS staff. – CIFS staff know how trotter cases to the Child Protection Unit (CPU) in the District Social Welfare Department for registration and close monitoring. Child Protection Committee (COP): Activities of CIFS will be supported bicycled Protection Committees (COP) which religious leaders, youth groups, and others may be involved in the COP. – Terms of reference for COP must be in place (sample TORT in annex X) and COP members should e familiar with the TORT and understand their responsibilities 5.
CUES FOR WHOM CIFS should encourage participation of all childbearing’s the disabled, injured, children working and not attending schools, ensuring the equal participation of boys and girls. Special attention should be given to children with different ethnic, geographic or religious backgrounds. Also it should be noted that different age groups require different activities. Organize separate CIFS sessions or activities for children in three age ranges: very young children (0-7 years), school aged children (8-12 years), and teenagers (13-18 years). Keep the number of children who participate in CIFS manageable (how many? ) at a particular time.
Parents and community membership can also Join the CIFS to receive support from activities or to support children’s attendance. A safe environment for children and adolescents can be called anything that makes sense to children and the local community. In some parts of Pakistan, the use of the word ‘child’ in ‘Child Friendly Space’ reportedly discouraged adolescent boys and girls from attending. Talk to children and families about a name that makes sense, particularly in the local language, before opening the centre. . STAFFING CIFS need to be equipped with at least two (2) trained CIFS facilitators (preferably 1 male and 1 female) and 1 community immobilizers. CIFS facilitators and workers should be trained in psychosocial skills on how work, talk with, support and normalize stressful situations and affected population, and identification and referral of those with special needs – mental health issues, substance abuse, disability, gender based (& other forms) of violence and the consequent support to their family members. (This covers levels 1 and 2 of the Pyramid of Intervention in the IAC MAPS Guidelines)Where possible, psychologists (level 3 Pyramid of Interventions) should have psychosocial orientation/training in psychosocial knowledge and skills specifically related to children to avoid metallization of psychological issues and consequently act in a ‘coaching role to further develop CIFS staff skills and knowledge.
All staff should be trained on how to listen with empathy and understanding, treating the children and young people with non-judgmental, non discriminatory respect. They are able to liaison with mental health professionals, counselors, psychologists, and social workers in the area and use ongoing monitoring and referral mechanisms. There is a need to provide ongoing training, follow-up, and capacity building for staff at all levels of CIFS. – All CIFS staff must have received orientation in and signed the Code of Conduct Mobile CIFS Mobile CIFS can be established in the relief phase for the children who have been living in temporary shelters such as school or hospital buildings, in camps (formal/ informal), and in open spaces such as embankments and on the roads where static CIFS cannot be established.